As a general rule, one should inform oneself about recommendations for any special vaccinations for a region by seeing a family doctor or the responsible health authority before long-distance travel. Especially if you take children with you, it makes sense to talk to a pediatrician first to get the appropriate information. In general, however, there are no special vaccinations currently recommended for Oman.
There are a number of vaccinations that are generally recommended in Germany – tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, etc. In this country, these vaccinations are paid for by the state health insurance. It is generally recommended that you have your family doctor check your vaccination card, and determine whether the vaccine protection listed is sufficient or if a booster or re-vaccination is necessary.
Hepatitis A is a condition that is usually transmitted through contaminated drinking water or food. The risk of becoming infected with hepatitis A is therefore relatively high in countries with dubious hygienic standards. Oman is one of the Arab regions with the highest standards of hygiene and can easily compete with Germany and other Western European countries in this regard. Therefore, there is no increased risk of disease here. But just as in other countries, where the risk of hepatitis A is actually very low, there may be a risk regarding unpeeled fruit, lukewarm or cold food or under-heated seafood such as mussels or oysters. So if you really want to be sure, you should get vaccinated against hepatitis A before you travel. In general, Hepatitis A vaccine protection is recommended for those who travel regularly.
In general, Oman is not a country where malaria is an issue. However, in the summer months, when the monsoon rains fall in Dhofar, the climate of the southern parts of the country becomes conducive to a moderate risk for malaria. For this reason, if you travel to the region around Salalah in the rainy season you should consult with your family doctor about the extent to which malaria prophylaxis makes sense. There is no malaria vaccine; therefore, antimalarial drugs are the most effective form of prevention. The risk of malaria in Oman is by no means very high so that a malaria prophylaxis is generally recommended – it only makes sense in special cases and with specific medical advice.